After the Civil War and the assassination of President Lincoln, newly installed President Andrew Johnson had to contend with a divided and fragile Union. Since his election as Vice-President, Johnson advocated for tough punishment of the Southern States but also advocated for a quick and speedy reconciliation. Under Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction there were fourteen exemptions to general clemency. Since William N. Habersham’s estate exceeded $20,000 he was required to apply for a pardon. As part of his pardon he had to take a loyalty oath to the United States.